Sebaceous glands are the glands that produce and release sebum in order to help protect and lubricate the surface of the skin. Sebaceous hyperplasia is where those glands are enlarged due to ageing, frequent exposure to sunlight, immunosuppressive medication and genetic factors. It is usually seen on the forehead or cheeks of the middle-aged, elderly and fair skin people which appears as a small yellow bump with central indentation due to hair follicle as a special characteristic. These bumps are the result of damaged sebaceous glands which lead to overproduction of sebum that becomes trapped inside the gland and cause it to swell and form a bump under the skin. Otherwise, too much sebum also can be blocked and caused several problems such as acne and oily skin or scalp.
Sebaceous hyperplasia will be confused as basal cell carcinoma, however, it is just a form of benign hair follicle tumour which should not be worried and harmless. In most cases, it does not require any treatment unless if the bumps are bothersome or for cosmetic purposes. There are various methods available such as medicine and home remedies which may reduce the appearance of bumps, while surgical procedures, can remove them. However, all methods require few sessions or applications for full removal and every method have their own benefits and side effects. You need to discuss all options thoroughly with a professional and need to exclude it from the basal cell carcinoma which has a totally different kind of treatment.
Sebaceous hyperplasia medicine includes retinol, facial peels and antiandrogen medication. Retinol is a derivative of vitamin A which would fight sebaceous hyperplasia to become less visible, however, it does not solve the problem. Oral isotretinoin may clear the bumps if the lesions are severe, extensive or disgusting by returning it to its original shape, but it will recur as soon as the treatment stops. Oral isotretinoin is usually used to treat acne and already proved its effectiveness which is its anti-sebotropic effect towards sebaceous gland by reducing the size and function of the sebaceous gland. However, retinol has its own side effects which the main issue is it is a teratogenic drug which needs to be avoided by pregnant mothers. Other side effects are skin and mucosa dryness and increasing triglyceride level.
Next medicine is an antiandrogen, which may help improve the appearance. This medication is suitable for women with severe symptoms who do not respond well to other treatment methods. An anti-androgen effect will reduce the production of testosterone and other hormones which have an influence on the sebaceous gland. Another method is using chemical facial peels. Example of facial peels is salicylic acid and niacinamide (Vitamin B3). The recommended dose of salicylic acid in skincare products is 2 per cent if you want to get the benefit from it and you need to use the skincare product once or twice a day. Nevertheless, chemical facial peels may cause irritation, sensitivity and redness which can aggravate more sebaceous hyperplasia if a person does not receive proper aftercare. You need to avoid scrub as it is a physical exfoliant which only works on the surface of the skin while the problem is deep in the skin.
The best treatments could not be other than cosmetic procedures and surgery for a faster result, however, these options should be avoided unless the other treatment does not work since sebaceous hyperplasia is a harmless condition. A dermatologist will suggest laser treatment, photodynamic therapy, liquid nitrogen, cryotherapy, electrocautery or the last resort which is surgery as the best method. They have the same objective which is removing the sebaceous gland but with a different way according to their method names. The most special advantage of this cosmetic procedure is there will be no recurrence but it holds a great con as well which is a permanent scar from the removal.